Secret Intelligence Service

Notes Various




Notes, basic – Requirements for Sniper and Selection (C-IV)




Selection of candidates for the sniper presents a very important professional and psychological candidature. So, during the course two main problems are solved, which are.

identifying persons who, for professional, moral, psychological and psychophysiological qualities are not able to serve as a sniper. Thereby providing a significant part of the prevention of professional errors and neuropsychiatric breakdowns during combat operations or special operations in the future development of neuropsychiatric disorders and diseases.

understandable – very; psychological, psycho-physiological contraindications for appointment as sniper :

chronic diseases
condition after suffering herbs and acute diseases
belonging to the risk group, reduced psychological stability, susceptibility to psychological maladjustment
lack of development of professionally important qualities
increased anxiety, worry, fear
excessive impulsivity, tendency for a spectacular response, inconsistency
emotional and autonomic instability – frequent redness or blanching face, sweating, constant shaking of arms or age
irritability, touchiness, susceptibility to negative emotional and evaluative reactions

The second task – to determine the degree of professional, moral, psychological and psycho-physiological readiness of these persons for their combat sniper work.

Candidates are assessed following ideal characteristics :
dedication, professional sense of duty
moral principles
intensity of motivation – voluntary willingness to solve complex professional tasks
intellectual abilities – general intelligence, quick thinking and heuristic
the level of claims, self-esteem, self-confidence, social maturity – liability determination in difficult circumstances, realism, flexibility behaviour
resistance to mental and physical stress
the level of self-control – self-restraint, poise, composure

Important is the ability to quickly navigate the complex and rapidly changing environment, well-developed functions of perception, spatial orientation, and motor coordination, speed-strength endurance.

In preparation for sniper groups fighting there are features, chief among them is that, unlike the training of snipers in the military, where the main shooting distance of 600-800m, here this distance, usually 2-3 times less . About the sniper in the police is required to the same :

to correctly identify target; take into account the presence of random people, hostages or members of his group, which may be close to the perpetrator; be in the same position, perhaps a few hours; subsequently the need to stand trial for their actions.

On this basis, the selection of snipers is tough.

First of all, the sniper must be selected on a voluntary basis. However it is not enough just to want to be a sniper. Preferably selected from the participants of snipers shooting competitions or people with obvious talent for shooting, and has practical knowledge of ballistics. Preferably, to select candidates was a mature, calm, patient and emotionally balanced person, non-smoker and not prone to drinking.

Give preference to follow a person with a good physical preparation, which is able to carry heavy loads. Good health means fast response, ability to accurately control the muscles that control breathing. It is important that the sniper had excellent eyesight and improve endurance. Sniper with lost or broken glasses will be helpless, in addition glasses can cause glare in the sun and give the location of the sniper. Sniper should be interested in their constant improvement and enhancement of professionalism.

It is desirable that the candidate for the snipers had above average intelligence and is able to be clear and articulate when communicating. Required of person is the ability to understand ballistics, optics, communications, navigation, etc. It is also necessary to check the extent of future observation sniper, visual memory and the ability to collect and analyse useful information and use it when necessary.

Selection is advisable to separate into two phases.

At the beginning of analysed available data on the degree of development of abilities, health status, physical, business, moral, psychological and psycho-physiological qualities of the candidate. Then, a test to determine the level of development of the above-mentioned qualities.

It should be noted that a sniper activity pass, not every good shot. In evaluating candidates must show sufficient strength and integrity.

To sniper had constant high psychological tone and a good ability to perform this task,  must regularly psycho-diagnostic assessment – testing, interview, observation. In a stressful disease prevention is recommended regular relaxation training. 

Qualification requirements and regulations

Certification snipers for professional competence should be / might be performed every 3-4 months, sniper rifles should be checked and reduced to the normal monthly, as the change of seasons and weather conditions. Letting standards will maintain the weapons on alert and constantly improve shooting skills.

Ideal standards of marksmanship :

shooting from a prone position on the 100 metres, 6 shots in a target square 4×4 cm – all bullets should be in the target
shooting from a prone position, with emphasis on 300 metres headache target size of 30 x 20 cm, which appears in the opening of the window for 5-6 seconds – the defeat of the first shot

Additional tests :

Running over a distance of 100 metres and then shooting from a distance of 100 metres from the supine position with the support, the target – circle diameter of 8 inches.

Instant shooting team fire :
shooting from a distance of 200 metres, the target size of 12×12 cm from a prone position with support
shooting from a distance of 300 metres, shot in the chest on chest shape, height 150 cm, from a prone position with support

Physical standards :
running at a distance of 3 km in a time not exceeding 13 minutes
push 40-50 times in 60 seconds
pulling the legs to the chest 50-60 times in 60 seconds
pulling on the bar 16 times

The safe management of personnel with weapons is not new. This is the eternal headache commanders of all units of all law enforcement agencies around the world and at all times.
Recorded are many cases where neglect of safety regulations led to the death and injury of personnel and police officers.


Notes : Method for determining the dominant eye when aiming.

There is a method for determining the combined arms dominant eye. In a newspaper sheet is done round hole diameter of 2.5 – 3 cm, then hold your head still and a sheet of newspaper at arm’s length, the shooter looks through the eyes of two through a hole in the target. If the closing of any eye target is hidden behind the paper, then the leading eye.

There is another, more accurate way  – staring at a distant object, quickly put a finger between it and the eyes, continuing to look at this subject. If you see two transparent finger, then both eyes leading. If one is visible, it is necessary to cancel any eye : finger remains in place, thus leading open eye, if displaced, would mean that the leading eye – closed.

There are ways to make any leading eye. But it’s a long process. Moreover, if, for example, visual acuity of the right eye is smaller than the left, the right eye making leading to impossible.

We need to know that the impact of fire depends on what the eyes of a particular person leading. Shooting with both eyes open is easy to learn arrows which lead shot right eye or both eyes leading.

But if it turns leading the left eye, and the shooter is shooting from the right shoulder, with his eyes open, aiming for the right eye, the shooting goes awry. This arrow and you have to shoot with his left eye half-closed, and if not, then learn to shoot with his left shoulder. Lock and thus will be mirrored from the right-hand, and its running time must actively monitor the correct execution of the individual components  – then everything will turn out.

When aiming both eyes should be open. If you squint unsighted left eye begins to blink reflex and right, while it tightens and tires easily. True, it is seen that the left eye squinting increases visual acuity of the right eye, but very few and very long. Left eye try not to squint even snipers.

Methods to determine and correct for crosswinds and target movement.

To defeat the enemy with the first shot (queue) one must quickly identify and take into account the amendments on the side of the wind and the movement of the target.

The guidelines and various manuals are for the corrections : for average shooting conditions with moderate winds – 4 m / s blowing at an angle of 90 degrees to the plane of fire; to the target speed of 3 m / s running figures.

The value table amendments to all the firing range is impossible. Under real conditions on the battlefield wind speed and direction, as well as the velocity of the target, defined roughly by eye.
Therefore, the amendment can take into account the so-called mnemonic rules, convenient for storing and giving sufficient for the correction on the accuracy of input data preparation for firing.

Amendments to the crosswind for small arms is convenient to define and take into account the figures purpose. The calculation is usually made in the values of the most typical goal – a human figure (width 0.5 m). The result is easy to recalculate the figures for other purposes.
In a side-moderate winds blowing at an angle of 90 degrees to the plane of fire, the following rule of thumb :
Example : For a small arms rifle cartridge and the cartridge 5.45 mm the wind carries the bullet so as to discard sight two and divide by two.


Notes : Effective control of fire during an ambush

The personnel involved in the ambush, should be guided by the following principles in order to maximise the effectiveness of their fire :

What are at the front and rear of the enemy columns, must be destroyed in the first few minutes, so that all the cars were trapped between them.

Enemy units following on trucks should not be able to leave them, if possible. While one soldier firing at the truck, the other shoots at those who try to leave the danger zone.

Fire should be covered by all the affected area. Machine guns should be able to fire the entire area, and infantry armed with rifles firing at the overlapping field of fire for the closure of any escape routes.

Continuous fire is best used during an ambush in order to create a volume of fire for destruction.

Ambush team should try to reduce the distance between themselves and the enemy, in order not to give him the opportunity to find and take up firing positions outside the protected zone of destruction.

Enemy combatants armed with machine guns or rocket-propelled grenades – or any other powerful weapons, should be neutralised as soon as possible, even at the first volley.

The machine-gunners should have ready the new trunks for replacement, if the ambush is converted into a prolonged fight.

Secret Intelligence Service

(C-IV) Notes, brief

10 / 2019


The Purpose of Special Units

Sniper School Day One – Notes

Equipment – Sniper Team

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Secret Intelligence Service



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