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Secret Intelligence Service

Unit (C-IV)

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Firearm Training – Special Units (C-IV)

Nos. I – XI

Anti-Sniper Memo

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Introduction

Shooting in combat requires the ability to affect not only fixed, but also appearing and moving targets at different distances, from different positions in the movement, with the transfer of fire along the front and in depth, in different lighting conditions and weather, in limited time.

The apparent simplicity of a shot, often hides the fact that the result of the shooting should be guaranteed defeat the purpose, rather than a random hit. Marksmanship skills are developed as a result of correctly delivered training, training and constant practice. Best results are obtained when working with an experienced coach in the dash or in the gym, and self-learning, at best, gives only general skills in the handling of weapons and shooting. Any training is carried out gradually, from simple to complex. As a first step it is suitable publicly available methods of teaching sports shooting. Go to the next phase of training should take place only after securing a solid skills for the current phase of training.

Shooting from Small Arms in the special Units

a) Receiving a Submachine

The usual purpose of handguns (pistol or revolver) – self-defence of its owner in a peaceful and combat conditions. For such situations are characterised by the sudden appearance of the threat and the need for rapid reaction to it, which consists in an instant assessment of the situation with the simultaneous departure from the line of enemy fire, snatching weapons, preparing it for firing, aiming and opening fire. Static racks with pistol shooting in a real fight practically does not occur, because the shooting is at extremely short distances of 2-7 metres and ends in a matter of seconds. The process is made up of the ready shooting, aiming and descent. When training they are considered separately, but it must be remembered that these three elements are inextricably linked. Develop a sense of weapons, aiming and launching automatically, without separating. Since submachine visual acuity does not play such an important role, both in rifle shooting, visual memory and a sense of weapons developed with the shooting of the good friend pistol it is possible to achieve significantly better results than when fired from another weapon even if such same model.

Lock and Load

First, consider the ready for a slow shooting with one hand, without time limit. It is assumed that the shooter holds the gun in his/her right hand.

The main thing in making rack for shooting – is a natural position, the smallest muscle tension, balance and stability of the system body-arms. The shooter gets to the target with the right side with the greatest angle of rotation with respect to the firing plane. Legs apart at shoulder width, toes slightly outward. Body weight is evenly distributed on both legs. Need a little spine to bend backwards to take off his load. Shoulder hand with a gun should not be highly elevated. The head is rotated to the right in the direction of the target. It must be kept straight without tension, without tilting left or right, forward or backward. Hand holding a gun, should be fully extended – with the forearm and shoulder more tightly bonded to each other. May be slightly bend the arm at the elbow, but the rotation of the body to the target should be the smaller, the more bent arm. Maximum relaxation left hand should not interfere, and can be: freely folded down, behind his back, rest on the left side, put in your pocket or belt, bent at the elbow and pressed against the chest (the latter provision is usually used when shooting with the knee).

The correctness of the rack is checked as follows : Point the gun (aim) at the target, close your eyes and put his/her hand down with a gun. Without opening his/her eyes, raise your hand in the direction of the target and open your eyes. If the gun has deviated to the right or left of the target, then by moving the feet, change a certain angle rotation of the body relative to the target and repeat the test.
Racks in which the shooter holding a gun in one hand, are designed for aimed fire. Rack in which the shooter holding a gun with both hands, intended to conduct tempo shooting. Two-handed grip allows for better control of the weapon and quickly return it to the line of sight after the shot.

There are more than a dozen racks for shooting with two hands. The main stand are Weaver and Israeli rack, and the rest – is the above two options. The main difference between these pillars is the location of the body relative to the line of fire arrow.

In front Weaver shooter located in an angle to the line of fire – in front of the left shoulder. Feet shoulder width apart, and the body is slightly tilted forward. Body weight is evenly distributed on both legs. This rack is better shooter dampens support leg recoil and is less of a target. Front Weaver is now the most widely used.

In the Israeli the front gunner stands perpendicular to the line of fire, and his body is a greater purpose than rack Weaver. However, due to the fact that the body is not twisted and thorax does not prevent the firing hand, some arrows believe that this situation is more convenient to shoot. In order to compensate for weight fluctuations and outstretched hands, body weight is shifted back a little. To reduce the load on the muscles of the back, the shooter must be some stooping.

In both columns legs straight (in a calm situation) stretched or bent, if it may be necessary to leave the line of fire. The gun is held straightened or slightly bent at the elbow with your right hand as well as when shooting with one hand. The left hand supports the right. To increase the stability of weapons must be lightly pressed the fingers of his/her left hand to right hand, which in turn prevents the left.

Thus, rigidity is achieved triangle formed arms and upper torso.

There are several ways to support the left hand.

(I) The fingers of the left hand fingers cover the front of the right hand. Left thumb outstretched along the barrel.
(II) The fingers of his left hand supporting the bottom right fist
(III) The fingers of the left hand cover the bottom right wrist
(IV) The fingers of the left hand cover the bottom right elbow
(V) Gun or brush with a gun is placed on the bent left elbow

To change the line of fire to the opposite when shooting while standing, it is necessary to step with right foot forward so that the foot of the right leg was in front, to the left of the left foot. Then made a left turn through 180 ° on the toes of both feet. Pistol in turn to keep the shoulder in the barrel up and straighten out after the turn arm (or arms) in the direction of the target.
Another variant of this technique is to dismiss his right foot back – left turns to the right.
For making racks for shooting with one knee must be from a standing position to take a step forward with one leg (usually the left) and go down on one knee right leg. It is recommended to get in the right knee, if the right hand holding a gun – in this case will be less muscle tension torso by working hands. Another rifle position kneeling described below in the subsection on their rifles.

When firing because of the low shelters used stand on both knees. In this case, the shooter sits on his heels, and only when a shot rises on both knees, straightening the torso and thigh. For making stands for shooting arrows sitting squats, body weight shifts back and, holding back a broken arm and leaning on it, sits on the buttocks. You can rely on your hand or elbow. Further variants are possible.

When shooting with one hand and half-bent legs are outstretched, and the dummy hand is still behind and supports. When shooting with two hands torso leans forward and her legs are pressed ‘in Turkish.’ Gun held in both hands, sometimes with the support of the elbows on knees or hips. From the position of sitting easily go in shooting position, lying on his/her back. Sitting shooter pulls the legs and falls on his/her back. Gun held in both hands over his/her stomach. Not to shoot, the foot itself, either to stretch the legs to the side, or tilt the foot parallel to the ground (socks inside, outside or in any way). If you raise the arms above the head, it is possible to fire in the opposite direction. To facilitate the rolling of sight can lie on your stomach.

From the position of lying on your back or stomach can pass into shooting position, lying on its side. Note that this shooting position, as well as the position of lying on your back with arms outstretched above his head, unusual and because of this is rather difficult to aim. To move out of position, standing position, lying on his stomach must make a wide step left foot forward, bend, pull in front of a broken arm and, leaning on it, and toe straightened right leg, straighten your left leg and lie down on your stomach. Shooting of this situation is usually done with two hands.

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Firearm Training – Special Units  No. II

There are many options described above stands for the shooting. The use of one or another depends on the situation. It must be remembered that in a shootout to constantly move, going from one rack to another, in different directions and ragged pace. When the shallows and tumbling gun is recommended to press the left collarbone and keep your finger on the descent.

The readiness for high-speed shooting at moving targets appear and should have a high resistance. Transfer shooting with one purpose to another should be done not an isolated movement of one hand with a gun, and turning torso arrow with hand rigidly fixed in the shoulder joint. Rotate the torso with his/her hand should be made leg muscles. The muscles of the right hand should be more tense than in a slow fire. Shooting hand can be straightened or bent at the elbow, elbow but at the same time should be as disconnected. The hand must be of one piece. Pistol grip, compared with a snap shooting at slow to be more dense, fine-tuning to ensure a minimum of sight during the transition from one target to another.

Translation gun from the starting position to the position for firing can be done from the bottom or from the shoulder. When lifting the hand straight bottom or straightening of the arm at a maximum rate of 2/3 of the distance traversed and then is braked before the arrival of the hand to the position of fire. At the ready to fire from the shoulder gun barrel is held up in his hand, bent at the elbow. The muzzle end of the barrel is approximately the same between the eye line arrow and the target. At the end of the barrel straightening arms should move along the shortest path, i.e., slide along the line of sight. Brush should not relax – then the gun will not “sink” in the extreme point.

Grip, that is a way of keeping his/her right hand gun, is crucial. The gun is inserted deep bend on the back side of the handle in the fork between the thumb and index finger and the palm rests. The thumb is pulled along the barrel, and is not bent downward. In this case, it should not apply pressure to the frame of the gun. Note that in the revolver or a small pocket pistol thumb to bend because the rectified position of the thumb may impede the movement of the index finger or the rotation of the drum. Pinky, ring and middle fingers should touch each other and tightly cover the handle. To ensure monotonous grip trigger guard rests on the middle finger. End or middle of the first phalanx of the index finger is on the trigger gun. Make sure that when you press the shutter index finger does not touch the frame pistol and knocked it does not tip. Acumen as a whole should be thick enough, especially fingers. In the hand gun should be positioned so that the trunk was like a continuation of the axis of the forearm. The main thing in a snap – the monotony. In no case cannot be fingered holding the gun – if necessary rest they can just relax.

You can check the correctness of the grip as follows : Aim at the target and try to squeeze the handle of a pistol with great effort. Gradually loosen the grip. Remember grip force at which the gun fluctuations will be minimal. Assimilation of this effort produced by exercise, so that it is entrenched in the muscle memory.

Breathing arrow makes the gun fluctuate. To reduce or eliminate the effect of respiration on the results of the shooting, the arrow must learn harbouring breath. It is believed that after exercise breathing better detain and at rest. However, each shooter

Must independently choose the way of breathing. Inhalation or exhalation should be shallow, underbelly.

To improve the results of firing should always train the hand holding the weapon. Excessive or inadequate load (for example, carpal expander) harmful as roughened fine work muscles of the hand, and especially the index finger, which is the descent to move independently of the others. Strength endurance is produced by hand by holding the layout of the gun or pistol, weighted to 1800 grams; As a result, training arrows without experiencing fatigue should hold mock about 30 seconds. Shoot, overcoming muscle fatigue, in any case impossible. Even in a relaxed atmosphere on the aiming and the shot should leave no more than 5-10 seconds. If you do not have time for this time to make a shot, you need to return the arm to the starting position, relax, and then repeat all over again. In the process of training is necessary to gradually reduce aiming time, bringing it to 1 second or less.

Aiming

Aiming using open sights is to keep the so-called flat flies. When aiming a gun is held so that the fly was located exactly in the middle of the slot as a whole, and the upper edge of the front sight was on the same level with the top cut entirely. Attention is focused on hand as a whole, that is, the rear sight notch should be visible sharply. Due to the fact that the eye has a certain depth of view, fly into the slots will also be seen quite sharply. Target must be clearly visible, vague.

Training is necessary to ensure that when moving the aiming point remained flat fly. To do this, point the gun on light background, aim, hold down flat fly, and achieve complete immobility flies into the slots of the rear sight. Gun itself can vary, but the fly in the slot pillar should be fixed. You need to remember in muscle memory force at the wrist, which kept weapons. Further training is necessary to complicate the movements of the index finger on the descent – thus the flat flies should be maintained.

At the initial stage of training when shooting with the right hand need to aim the right eye and the left to close and vice versa, when shooting with his left hand need to aim the left eye and the right to close. When combat shooting is recommended to shoot with both eyes open.
As you know, most people working hand – right, a minority (10%) – the left. Less well known is that this dominance is inherent and vision – one eye leading (main) and one slave. There are people without a pronounced dominance of a particular eye. Note that with the age of the dominant eye may vary. When firing it can be a real problem that prevents to achieve good results. The fact that the eye can lead not coincide with the driving arm. When shooting with a pistol it can be corrected, but the rifle shooting problem is often not solvable. There are techniques to reduce the dominant eye, but for some people they do not give noticeable results.

Application – Descent

Before we discuss the technique of descent should be noted that the training technique descent only with cocking, i.e. pre-cocking the hammer. This is due to the fact that the trigger pull in this case is much lower (up to 3 kg) than when firing (5-10 kg). In addition, self-loading and automatic weapons only made the first shot mode (though not always), and for the remaining shots trigger cocked automatically when recharging.

In any case, you cannot start training shooting airguns, which has only self-cocking trigger mechanism. It can fix incorrect handling skills descent. Unfortunately, too many models airguns have only self-cocking trigger with large trigger pull.

In small arms, two types of trigger mechanism : without warning and warning. In the trigger without warning by pressing the trigger force increases gradually until, until a breakdown hammers. Descend without warning implemented in all smooth bore guns, Russian Kalashnikov. Pneumatic – for example, in the revolver ME-38. In the first trigger a warning when you press the trigger force is very small – it selects the so-called free course – and then force increases until failure hammers. Descent with a warning, American Walter SR88.

For proper working off of descent, and thus ensure marksmanship, always keep in mind what type of USP is set to a specific weapon.

When you press the trigger requires that the motion was referred to the longitudinal plane of the arms parallel to the barrel. In small arms most widely used form of descent into parts, rotating around an axis – the trigger. Descent as parts moving parallel to the barrel, did not show any advantages in improving shooting accuracy compared with a rotating descent.

Learning the proper descent is that the movement of the index finger did not cause muscle contraction other fingers, hands, arms and torso, and do not stray tip. Training in the ground (up to 90% of the time) should be carried out in vain, without the use of cartridges, because the return on the shot hides tugging pistol at the wrong time you press the trigger. The shooter has picked up the gun when the line of sight selects a free course (if any), and then slowly, smoothly and constantly increasing force on the trigger until a disruption of hammers. Shot for the shooter must be to some extent unexpected. Cannot wait for the shot – it leads to stress and involuntary muscle contractions. At the initial stage of training is not necessary to follow the mutual arrangement of the front sight, rear sight and target – the main thing that the descent gun did not budge. Platoon trigger for the next shot must be made not shooting hand (grip cannot be changed), And broken hand.

Smooth trigger pull is important weapon in the final segment of trigger travel, while the initial part of the descent should be done quickly and decisively. To develop a sense of descent specific instance of a gun, it is recommended to carry out such idle exercise: 3-4 times squeeze descent so that very little effort left before the collapse hammers. Then fully squeeze the trigger, checking for the right feeling. Then the cycle is repeated. This training should be carried out in three stages : (1) sitting, holding a gun on his/her lap; (2) standing in the front, but without holding the flat flies ; (3) standing in front, holding a flat flies.

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Firearm Training – Special Units No. III

A little bit of practice.
Shooting always involves the use of sighting devices. However, less than half a century ago in the US police appeared instinctive shooting technique that is shooting without sights or rough aiming. Rapid fire in the direction of the enemy multiply charged heavy guns gave hope that at least one of the bullets hit the target. Set of funny and tragic cases where police with 2-10 metres never could get into the criminal, has led to the realisation that aimed fire is still needed.
Now formed a compromise approach that shooting should always be conducted with the sights, except in cases when the distance to the enemy too little (no further 1-1.5 metres) and the gun cannot be raised to eye level. Since the high-speed shooting is not rapid fire as such, but in a fast opening fire, modern techniques are based on the Quick Draw weapons, production of one or two shots without aiming towards the enemy (to cause embarrassment) and then an immediate transition to a sighting of shooting to kill.
Snatching the gun from the holster open should be for the shortest path. Hand, as it were hammered in the handle of the gun, the index finger is located along the trunk or on the trigger guard and the thumb button unfasten the locking strap. In the process of extracting the gun from the holster deactivated safety lever. If you do not hand in these cartridge into the chamber, then the motion of the gun from the holster to the line of sight, the fingers of his/her left hand covering the gate and continued forward movement of the right hand with a gun cringe shutter. Then, if necessary, to lie down on the left hand fingers of the right bottom, carrying out, two-handed grip.
When snatching a pistol shooter looks only at the target, preventing responses enemy withdrawal from the line of fire. In the process of raising the gun shot is decided, and only if the index finger is placed on the slope and begins to squeeze it in such a way that the minimum holding pressure remains to be fired. When the gun a little bit not brought to the line of sight, the shooter looks from the target on the whole, focusing on the sharpness of it, sets the flat fly, bring a gun to the line of sight and further squeezed the trigger.
When shooting offhand shooter does not enjoy sights. Usually sights cannot be used in cases when a sudden collision with the enemy no time to aim; at ultra-short distances shooting at 1 to 1.5 m (to avoid disarming an opponent) when shooting in the dark, and other similar situations.
When shooting offhand shooter leverages the effect of ‘muscle memory’, which is produced and maintained long-term training on simulators and weapons of war. In addition, this method of shooting this feature contributes to a person if he/she is looking at a certain object and points a finger at him, the index finger is pointing at the object. Gun when firing may be in the area of the belt (so-called shooting from the hip) or at the level of the shoulder.
In the first case, the hand with the arms bent at the elbow and forearm parallel to the ground. Elbow pressed against the body. Wrist is fixed, and the gun barrel is an extension of the forearm. According to the results produced finishing shooting weapons at a target. Aiming weapons in the horizontal plane only by turning the torso to the right or to the left, and in the vertical plane – only trunk bent forward or backward. In any case it is impossible for a tip-off, bending the wrist or changing the crook of the elbow. Rigid fixation elements bent arm and its position relative to the body – the basis for success. In the second case, the gun is held at arm’s length but below eye level. It also enslaves hand in all joints and relative to the housing arrow. Lapping gun made only by turning or tilting of the body. Out of the corner of a tip-off, you can check the barrel weapons.
It should be noted that after years of experience shooting snapshot of these rules (eg, debugging weapons wrist) may be violated, but during the training phase, it is unacceptable.
There are other ways of firing from the hip. For example, the gun can be held in front of the belly with both hands. Plane perpendicular to the line of the body arrow shooting. One leg is set slightly forward and the gun barrel is directed parallel to the foot. Triangle created forearms and body clockwise (seen from above), provides rigidity and repeatability of construction.
When training the shooter, taking any of these racks for shooting, shots must be performed by adjusting the tip on the results of each hit. When injected into the centre of the target, the shooter should try to memorize the position of your arms, legs, whole body for this successful shot. Should be ready the next time will not be able to repeat the good shooting immediately. Need hundreds and thousands of rounds a week and as a result the shooter must faster, for less unsuccessful shots, put itself in stored state. (In case of significant breaks in training skills will quickly be lost). First shooting is done with a minimum distance (2 m), and in achieving sustainable positive results, the distance should be increased to 10 – 12 m.
The simplest simulator can serve as a pistol with a laser designator, briefly switched on only when you press the trigger. Another option – a dark target (silhouette) installed at some distance from the white background (the wall). Between the target and the background is light, illuminating the background. When you hit a bullet to the target luminous bullet hole is clearly visible.
Finally, you can specify the sequence of stages of training combat pistol shooting:
shooting, standing with his/her right hand at a slow pace;
shooting, standing with his/her left hand at a slow pace;
aiming at reducing the time;
shooting, standing with two hands;
shooting from the knee (the one hand, with two hands);
shooting lying (with one hand, with two hands);
shooting, standing rotated by 180 °;
Shooting with the departure of the line of fire;
shooting on the run with a short stop;
shooting standing two guns in turn and simultaneously (at the same target and for different);
Shooting on the flash and the sound;
intuitive shooting (just for instance).

b) Receiving a sniper rifle

Shooting from long-barrelled weapons in principle is more static than pistol shooting, though, because being at large distances. Normally, when shooting with a rifle is the time to take a stable posture, use the focus and aim carefully. Like pistol shooting process of firing a rifle and made up of the ready, aiming and descent. If the actions of sight and descent differ little with the shooting of short-and long-barrelled weapons, the differences in the ready determined that the rifle while shooting held in both hands. The linear dimensions of rifles and significant weight leads to the fact that the best results are usually obtained shooting in prone or sitting. In the description it is assumed that the rifle is applied to the right shoulder

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Firearm training – Special Units No. IV

Lock and Load

Lock and should provide good resistance rifle at the lowest voltage of the body muscles.

In prone body of the arrow must be deployed to the left relative to the line of fire of about 15-20 °. Thus it is better to lie down flat on his stomach did not, and a few on the left side, which will create the best conditions for breathing. The legs should be spread out to the side, right leg slightly bent at the knee, and straightened the left rests on the ground toe. The left hand, perceiving the brunt of rifles, bent at the elbow and elbow rests on the ground. Hand support for the rifle forearm below, which should be based not on the fingers and the palm – closer to the base of the thumb. Hold your fingers forearm should be stress-free.

The position of the palm to the forearm should be always uniform, while the more hand moved forward to the trunk – within reason – the more resistance arms. Left elbow is just to the left of the vertical plane of the rifle. The butt is tight enough and monotonous must be pressed to the right side of the chest. The muscles of the chest and right shoulder – relaxed. The head should be kept as far as possible directly, without tilting forward, right or left – to avoid excessive muscle tension in the neck and eyes. To the position of head of sight was monotonous, you must touch the cheek comb butt. Right hand should effortlessly cover the neck of the butt, and the index finger should not be involved in the retention of weapons – it only applies to the first phalanx of the trigger. Your right elbow should not be excessively shifted to the right or to the left (to the body) – after coverage of cervical butt elbow rests freely on the ground.

Incorrect aiming weapons in the horizontal and vertical planes are not corrected by moving the hands and torso movements from side to side or front to back, never taking his left elbow on the ground. When in kneeling posture – more unnatural than the ready when lying down or standing. Therefore, taking into account the structural features of the body, each shooter must choose a position in which his muscular effort on the ready will minimally affect the results of the shooting. For making the ready kneeling need to get down on your right knee so that the bent right leg was placed at an angle of approximately 45% to the direction of fire. Left leg bent at the knee, all the feet resting on the ground. Shin perpendicular to the ground. The foot of the left leg around his thigh is parallel to the right leg. Toes of the right leg bent fingers (no lift) rests on the ground.

The shooter sits on the heel of the right foot so that rely on it at a point located between the buttocks. The main fulcrum of the triangle (the toe and knee right foot, left foot) is the heel of the right foot. The left arm is bent at the elbow and elbow rests in the kneecap left leg. The elbow should not be shifted to the right under the rifle. The right hand holds without straining the neck butt. Your right elbow should not be pressed to the body – the higher the raised arm, the more surface contact with the body of the butt plate arrow. At the ready should a few slouch, shifting the centre of gravity of the body inside the support triangle. The head should be kept as far as possible directly, without tilting forward, right or left – to avoid excessive muscle tension in the neck and eyes. To the position of head of sight was monotonous, you must touch the cheek comb butt.

When shooting sitting, especially with the back rest on a vertical surface, usually bent at the elbow, left hand placed horizontally on bent knees, forearm and just put in the crook of the elbow. When firing arrows sitting some prefer to sit in Turkish, holding a rifle on weight or leaning his elbows on his feet. Often used position when the shooter sitting, flex your knees and feet rests on the ground. Depending on the inclination of the body hands holding weapons, based on the hips, knees, shins elbow, hand or forearm.

When using a support for the rifle must always remember that the support should not be hard and weapons should not be directly related to any of its support part (except bipod). Almost always an intermediate support is softer hand arrow, which in turn rests on a solid foundation and is usually fixed – trunk of a tree, stone, wall, knee and hand t. N. The support should be strong, stable as when aiming, and in the shooting. Allowed to draw the gun rifle (in any case, not the barrel) On the bag with sand, soft earth, and so on. N.

When firing arrows become a standing half-turned to the shooting line, left shoulder in front, feet are about shoulder-width apart, toes of the feet slightly apart. The foot is the left foot to the left of the line of fire, and the middle of the right foot is on the shooting line. Legs straight in the knees, and the body more leaned back to compensate for the weight of the rifle and left-hand arrow. The left hand, perceiving the brunt of rifles, bent at the elbow so as to form an obtuse angle. Hand support for the rifle forearm below, which should be based on the palm – closer to the base of the thumb. Hold the forearm all fingers should be without strain. There is a way to hold when the forearm is just lying on the straight in his hand. The right hand holds the neck of the butt, clutching his shoulder. Your right elbow should not be pressed to the body – it should be raised by about 40-50 °. You need to keep your head straight, do not lean forward, right or left – to avoid excessive muscle tension in the neck and eyes. Cheek more tightly than in prone and kneeling, pressed against the ridge butt.

Aiming

Aiming using open sights is holding so-called flat flies. When aiming the rifle is held so that the fly was located exactly in the middle of the rear sight slot and the upper edge of the front sight was on the same level with the top cut entirely. Unlike aiming at pistol shooting rifle shooting because of the proximity of the rear sight to the eye shooter requires that attention was focused on the arrow flies, that is, the front sight to be seen most sharply. Due to the fact that the eye has a depth of view, pillar will also be seen quite sharply. Target must be clearly visible, vague. Note that a long line of sighting in rifles greatly increases the accuracy of aiming.

Optical or collimating sight is much more convenient because of increased shooting accuracy; less tired eyes arrow; You can keep shooting in low light; goals may be affected at great distances.

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Firearm Training – Special Units No. V

Tactics in single and multiple targets

Technological sustainability special forces

Combat operations in an urban environment have a number of unpleasant features. The enemy is defending – you tread it behind cover – you are open, he knows his city, and you’re in it, perhaps for the first time. The enemy in front of you has a solid advantage. In order to avoid unnecessary loss of the reality dictates the need to use against the defending enemy reasonable and active offensive tactics, formed on the basis of the bitter experience of the past conflicts. Knowledge of employees, acting directly in combat formations, the main tactics of conducting fire contacts avoids many serious consequences.

The basis of individual actions under fire contact in the cities is the so-called left-hand rule. Its essence lies in the fact that the right-handed person (whose right hand leads such people, about 95%) is more convenient and faster work out all activities related with the turn to the left (left-handed – right). Easier and faster to shoot in circumstances where it is necessary to move or turn to the left (counter-clockwise) and is much more difficult and less effective – with a turn to the right. For example, take the machine and imagine that the target is on your right. Try to deploy weapons in the direction of the target. Now, on the contrary, turn to the left with a weapon. Compare these two senses. It has long been observed that all actions associated with the turn to the left, obtained in humans right-handed performance and more accurate than the actions associated with turning to the right. This feature provides a general psycho-physical orientation of our nervous system, as well as the device of the musculo-skeletal system of man. This position is well known shooters-athletes who in the performance of high-speed special exercises for several targets always start shooting at the extreme right of the target, turning the course of the shooting from right to left, counter-clockwise. By the way, the recoil guns almost all systems throws weapons left-up (dial 10 – 11:00). In addition, all mass produced weapon for shooting with the right hand or to the right shoulder.

In a combat situation, firing a machine gun with the right shoulder (a pistol – with the right hand), often try to use any shelter (stone pillars, corners of buildings, and so on.). Shelter in this case should be on your left, closing the case and most of the head. In this case, for the oncoming fire remain open arms, shoulders, and lower part of the head. If the shelter is located on your right, you have to shoot from the left shoulder, it is unusual and uncomfortable, but you will be more sheltered. If you still want to shoot with the right shoulder (which happens all the time), you will discover a significant portion of the enemy’s shots of the torso and the entire head. Error will also be shooting top cover, you put under fire head, shoulders and part of the body. Try to organise the fire contact to cover possible enemy had the right of it, and your – on your left. To do this constantly try (if possible on the situation) to “tighten” the battlefield, moving to the left away from you. For example: the enemy is in the building and shoot out the window and if you approach it (of course, dashes from cover to cover, under the cover of his/her comrades fired) on the right hand of the enemy, it is the envelope building counter-clockwise, you will have an advantage, but he/she has not.

The enemy will be forced to shoot from the left shoulder, which is inconvenient, without aiming, and so few people know how to shoot, or shoot more often it will be on the right shoulder with the right hand, substituting your shots under the head, shoulders, a large part of the body. Your cover will also reliably protect you. If, on the contrary, you come to the left of the enemy, the advantage on his side. Maximum closed, it will be, and you have to shoot from the left shoulder, leaving the shelter. Do not be tempted to shoot from the right shoulder – while you have the most substituted.

During combat operations often have to knock out the enemy (or to conduct exploratory activities) from the ruins of the old houses at a construction site, on rough terrain, from attics and basements, clusters of garages, barns, outbuildings, in other words, of labyrinths. Alone in the labyrinth cannot go – you can get something heavy on the head or a bullet in the back. However, the main group will have to scour the maze, because you cannot leave upon the occurrence of a hornet’s nest behind him. Service dogs that can provide invaluable assistance; do not always turn out to be handy even in peacetime. Have to hope only for themselves.

Therefore it is necessary to observe the basic principles of the movement through the maze (between buildings) – any building, garage, shed, etc.. E., The envelope only counter-clockwise, from right to left, with the machine gun, or is on the right side of you, and you will have an advantage by shooting to the left, not even aiming, offhand. If circumstances require bypass angle from left to right, clockwise, to shift to the left of the weapons to be able to shoot without turning to the right. The general rule – must bend around the corners of buildings, being as far away from them. The same kind of insurance against sudden attack – the enemy, Hidden around the corner, you gradually opened, not once, he loses the advantage of surprise. We were shown a typical, unfortunately, employee error, despising the above mentioned rules. Rounding the corner of the building from left to right, are not automatic shifting to the left, on a small distance from the corner he was subjected to a surprise attack, turned out to be helpless and his fate is almost solved. All members of the search team should be at work in the maze at a distance of line of sight and monitor the safety of their comrades. Converge too close too it is impossible to not die all at once from one grenade or gunfire. In the maze you must fulfil different directions alternately, the whole team, who strayed from his, he was gone. You cannot go in the afternoon in a dark room at once, without preparation, until the eyes rea adjusted to the darkness, time passes, and in this case it works against you. You cannot work out the dark basements and attics without lighting. With the penetration of such objects must be a beacon of light to explore space on the right and left of the entrance into the depths of space, then a ray of light illuminate the space abruptly moved deep into the room and lit place earlier sharp throw diagonally through the doorway, hunched over and sat down, put forward the first of those who will have to inspect the basement, attic, barn and so on. Immediately crouch, he goes away from the door

He illuminates the room his lantern, and, if necessary, firing to cover those who penetrates behind him. In any case, the light source must be kept at arm’s length opposite to that on which side of the rifle. Not seeing you in the dark, perhaps even partially blinded by your lantern, the enemy will shoot into the light, and get away from you. When working in the maze to the sources of noise should be treated carefully, as to their direction and meaning – is critical. The enemy can distract your attention, leaving him in the right side of the rock, a stick, the other thing. Finally, the noise you can and somewhere trap. Weapons – machine gun should be kept at the hip. Outstretched arms easily beaten out with a stick, foot, and so on. If necessary, at close range the labyrinth can hit the enemy without aiming, shooting at random from the stomach. Who have little training to shoot at random in this situation will be on top. When driving in the dark to avoid lit areas or cross them with a jerk, as quickly as possible.

In practice, numerous cases, when detached from the main group of employees suddenly find themselves faced with a group of enemy. The phrase ‘got into trouble’ has long gone from just such a situation. Back to flee not – shot in the back. Always fleeing death overtakes. Naturally, a trained mental reaction should be the following: at the same time with the discovery of fire shoot the pace of what you have, shoot without aiming towards the enemy as often as possible ‘and faster at the same time you fast forward to the enemy and to the right of it. That is your direction of movement should be, as always, to the left of you. Members of the group of the enemy will be forced to turn to fire from left to right, sending weapons to back each other, representing no longer the goal, but just a bunch of other than the target group. With a sharp manoeuvre closer to the enemy, shoot on the move from the stomach, without aiming, this goal. Proceed as quickly as possible. In this case, you have another exit no. The first few seconds not stint on cartridges while shooting, peripheral vision, mark the gap itself, where you can hide and recharge. Do not give the enemy an opportunity to collect and recover from your insolence. Leave the initiative for themselves. Non-trivial cases where an employee suddenly finds on the street, a park on the roadway in the situation when the shooting starts suddenly, it is not clear who, where, by whom shoots where their where strangers. In this case you have to move. Cannot stand.

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Firearm Training – Special Units No. VI

Move from cover to cover. Orient. Do not let the enemy lock on, tighten the situation, moving to the left, causing the enemy to turn to the right and firing substituted, open it, so for your fire. Place it against the sun, run and shoot, throw grenades, do not let the enemy to shoot precisely and generally raise his head. It imposes its conditions. If you were unarmed, from direct fire depart sharply to the left of him/herself, crouched, zigzags, rifts in the fall to the nearest shelter. Even if you got caught so that you do not know what to do, do anything. And suddenly do it right?

If you have more, not bunch up. The natural tendency of people in moments of danger to keep the group can be fatal. Does not constitute a target group and manoeuvre, supporting and covering each others fire. Moment of fire cover – the law in the war. Two groups, supporting each other with fire, more reach and will have less losses than the group of more, but one that nobody covers and supports. You will have to shoot a lot on the run. With such a shooting, try to press the trigger in single support phase – at the time of the transfer feet. When the foot is placed on the ground, it causes severe concussion of the arrows, weapons and reducing accuracy.

Small units during combat operations in the settlements never rip away from their – can cut off and destroyed. Reasonable distance – the distance at which you can have a fire support. You can break a little forward in order to capture the reference point, to strengthen it, fire support neighbours right and left, cover them with fire when they are promoted to one with you abroad. Fire support, cover fire, barrage – the sine qua non of warfare in urban environments.

For the approach to the building or other object that you want to capture, use a method well developed even during the Second World War. It consists of the following: tommy move the object on the street, on both sides, along the walls at a distance of 6-7 metres from each other, throws from cover to cover. During their advance gunner (or gunners) were left behind, and support division covers fire, shooting to kill (if it turns out), but mostly is a quick barrage of short bursts, appearing on all targets in all places where the fire is seen enemy (attics, basements, windows of the houses, and so on.) grenade, running next to a machine gunner and destroy fortified and dangerous enemy fire weapons, machine gun nests and snipers who shoot mainly from the depths of premises. When the unit moved forward by 60-70 metres, lay down or taken refuge in shelters and opened fire stable, pulled the cover band – gunner and grenadier. Tommy firing at targets located on the opposite side of the street, not forgetting, of course, control the situation behind him. Cover group also should not lose vigilance – the enemy can appear in the rear. The approximate composition of the group cover – machine gunner (or group of gunners) and thrower with the second issue, which carry ammunition and ensure smooth operation of the main room, and the unit commander with the radio.

Similar to the promotion unit under fire and in the highlands.

When the assault seizure of any object (of the enemy strongholds) should approach him with fire support group covering that during the assault is a frequent barrage on the enemy firing points on the victim site and other enemy firing points that fire support their side. If possible, the best approach to the object of the sun – it will prevent the enemy aimed fire. Given some of the windows are shooting, approach the object on the right better by shooting the enemy side (described above). Entrance doors are divided on the subject of groups covering a grenade or hand grenades. Should break into at the moment the doors were broken, cover group conducts intensive fire, not allowing the enemy to shoot at the assault group sighting after a broken door flew another grenade. Immediately after that the door is thrown in 1-2 hand grenades. Sturm burst into tears immediately after their grenades. The first of penetrating into the room (crouch and jerk) abruptly walks away from the entrance; firing bursts all the dark places without aiming. The task of the first, forced their way into the room, allow breaking the main forces of the assault team, to clear their way by fire, as appropriate to cover them. Then, when they are reloading, they will have to stay in place and then move already in the second order. Ammunition to break into a building requires a great deal. On the upper floors of the building should break, leaning back against the wall, at a distance of a little less than a flight of stairs from each other immediately after the tears of their grenades. On the upper floors have to act in accordance with the actions in the maze.

Very often the enemy closes doors in the living room with a key inside. This insidious reception. Inexperienced fighters accumulate near the door, deciding what to do next, trying to knock the door butts. And get through the door all at the level of the abdomen. In the correct version of the castle fired off 3-4 shots from the machine (when fired be careful – there is not unpredictable bounce). The attackers are on the sides of the door. After shooting the lock the door swings open side kick, at the same time through the open door threw grenades. After its explosion assault team sharp throw, crouching (if perhaps the first penetrates a jerk to the left of the door), burst into the room, the men immediately moved away from the doorway, fixing peripheral vision situation and, if necessary using weapons. Again, the main task of the first to break through into the room, cover fire (if necessary) of other fighters assault team. In residential multi-room apartments should carefully examine all – hiding in the closet, under the bed, behind the curtain opponent can an unpleasant surprise.

If you took the building under a strong point, immediately take measures to avoid being knocked out. Barricade the lower floors and the basement. Identify the sector of fire. Fire system is defined so that you can shoot alternately from different firing positions did not allow the enemy to zero in and create a false impression about your numerical superiority. Several buildings – strong points, overlapping sectors shelling each other, form a truly impregnable fortress. Reference point – a base for further offensive, shelter for the wounded, the opportunity to defend themselves in case of aggravation of the situation. Assault following strong points of the enemy must be preceded by exploration areas in. basically constant supervision in order to establish the enemy firing points and possible places staging enemy firepower. Radio communications in the preparation of assault action must be silent. At the storming it should work in all divisions clearly – without it is impossible reaction when changing situation. Call sign and coded symbols shall have the letter ******, it goes well in the air, even with interference. Do not leave the rear uncontrolled objects – they can be re-occupied by the enemy. Armoured vehicles in the city are vulnerable, slow and ineffective. Rely only on themselves. Sniper against you start to work immediately, his task is not so much to kill, how to disorganize your work. Make him/her bait – tamp old outfit than comes handy, show him the bait from different windows, changing the bait hats and helmets, even with a successful hit the bait falls, to lull his vigilance and that when you set where the sniper shoots, it will destroy your sniper or rocket launcher.

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Firearm Training – Special Units No. VII

Psychological resilience and self-regulation of special forces

Mental processes, their role and importance in learning

Different people in the same circumstances, behave differently. This is due, on the one hand, the psychological characteristics of each of us, on the other – personal attitude to the situation.

Just different particular person manifests itself in a variety of circumstances. Thus, the specifics of the situation, as well as the type of activity, the most significant influence on people’s behaviour.

Achieving success in a complex activity requires individuals to certain abilities and training. Necessary precondition for recognition of skills and training of the person constructing a knowledge of the laws of mental processes common to all people, and their individually – a unique combination that defines the person.

By the mental processes directly involved in the implementation of Aimed Shot, include: sensation and perception, attention, memory, thinking, emotions, will.

Sensations and their reflection in consciousness – the perception give information about the ready position, grip, stability, standing, toned muscle-ligament apparatus. Headship is a visual sensation. Under its control and influence of organising the execution goes through all of Aimed Shot.

The minimum strength of stimulation that can cause a sensation, can greatly vary. The sensitivity of the psychological effects exacerbate: a sense of responsibility, an increase of interest in activities, elation, generating new knowledge about the subject and so on.

Attention. On the human psyche is constantly affected by multiple stimuli. They are available either from the environment or from the internal areas of the body. In order not to drown in the mass media, one must select the most meaningful for him at this time, in the circumstances, to restrict access to the consciousness of the rest. Mechanism, the Organization of mental activity, is attention. Thus, attention – this orientation of human consciousness on selected objects or phenomena.

Is considered to mean the simultaneous perception of four – six sites, provided that the focus is fixed at one or two, but only on the remaining slide.

These or other stimuli may attract the attention of the person and maintain it for a long time without requiring effort. This involuntary attention. Most often it is necessary to consciously focus on the desired subject (object, phenomenon, action, condition), whereas attention only skim the surface without stopping it, forcing the guide and keep it energized willpower. This voluntary attention. Often centred on the subject of strenuous efforts, it is stored on your own.

Thus, attention can be drawn either by attractive Object Properties or by strenuous effort. It is aimed at both the external objects, as well as on internal sensations, feelings, state. Different activities require different focus of attention.

The intensity and stability of attention create extreme strain on the psyche. Arbitrary preservation requires intense focus high energy costs. In progressive fatigue is not always possible to achieve an effort of will increase the intensity of attention.

Memory – this imprinting, preservation and reproduction of past experience. Distinguish motor memory related to the movement, behaviour; intuitive, results in the stimulation of the senses:

vision, hearing, smell, taste and temperature of recipes; emotional – experiences, their strength, colouring.

People vary in quality memory speed memorisation, memorise duration, volume imprinted material accuracy of imprinting. Remembering can be involuntary and voluntary.

Strong influence on the lightness and strength of remembering events and has an extremely emotional state associated with this phenomenon. Events having to human essential, causing overvoltage unbearable for the central nervous system, may be expelled from the memory subsequent protective suppression.

Emotions. Emotional distress inhibit skills, causing disorganisation of thought, action mismatch. But time goes by, still need to shoot. But what could be the shooting, if the hand is shaking, jumping fly, does not obey the finger. It should be shot after shot – one worse than the other. More clearly recognised the inevitability of a deep failure.

This causes bitterness and resentment, shame and anger. Arisen experiences are woven into one node anger, leading to restructuring mental state arrow. Now he/she feels a strong and steady hand. Sees rigidly fixed fly into the slots of the sight, feels docile to the most subtle sensations descent. Experiencing a surge of confidence and determination.

With the utmost mobilisation safely and collect it leads fire. It should be shot after shot at extremely high level, that even in successful training of fire not always obtained.

Excitement of great strength disrupts the normal flow of mental processes, causes narrowing of consciousness, lack of control of attention, disorganisation of motor function, braking skills. Particularly devastating this is reflected in the activities related to the coordination and automation of action, which include shooting.

Emotional arousal causes a surge of strength, energy, sharpens the sense of reaction. The energy required exit. Motor activity is constrained by the will of the arrow until the signal to open fire. The signal. And emotional stress gets discharge in this activity.

The command Fire, allows to start shooting, does not lead to a relaxation of tension. Execution of Aimed Shot is not associated with the activation, on the contrary, with the suppression of muscle activity, which leads to activation of the autonomic processes. Arrow becomes easier and more difficult to restrain themselves.

Psycho-physiological state of tension – stress – caused not only by the circumstances, represent a direct danger to life and health.

Stress reaction occurs both in positive situations, and under the influence of adverse factors.

There are a number of attempts to explain the psychological structure of emotions and on this basis to reveal ways to manage emotional state. Emotional arousal occurs due to lack of information about the stimulus that caused the reaction.
On the information theory of emotions based some teaching methods work. For example, it is useful to introduce the theory of shooters with the origin and development of emotions, their biological feasibility in terms of the past and the inconsistency of the conditions of modern life. This will allow the arrow to take another look at the mechanism of covering his excitement and facilitate the fight for the preservation of a favourable state.

The young staff should talk about the tasks set before them. Tell them that when the shooting they must show that they can. No results ultrahigh they are not expected, but to them, and they are not ready. Evaluation of their work will be given only by diligent and courageous relation to their work. All this strengthens their resistance, endurance under certain changes or complication of the situation of shooting. However, in some cases, an excess of information itself may be the stress of great strength.

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Firearm Training – Special Units No.VIII

Emotional arousal experienced shooter, not always prevent him. Many employees have the ability to direct the energy of emotion for the benefit, and not to the detriment of their work. Depending on the situation, a person’s psychological, experience, anger management techniques psycho-regulation cannot change the structure of emotional experiences, to translate them into the mainstream of favouring the firing.

Emotional experiences people have an extremely large number of colours : pleasure, cheerfulness, determination, courage, courage, hope, ambition, pride, a sense of superiority. They encourage a more vigorous and successful work. But may also lead to an overestimation of their abilities and capabilities, complacency and resting on one laurels, reduced interest, the decline of performance, negligence.

Another group of emotions: insecurity, embarrassment, shyness, anxiety, fear, impatience, doubt, despair, resentment, anger, shame, humiliation, dissatisfaction, humility, humility and patience. They are based on dissatisfaction, which expresses the negative attitude of the person to the object.

Displeasure is the desire to avoid, evade or overcome its object. Negative emotions can be worn as sthenic and asthenic character, causing a burst of energy to fight the obstacle or weakness and non-resistance.
Man does not adapt to the emotional tension. Conversely, once gone through, it predisposes to that condition. The internal state of very great activity externally and cannot be expressed – suppressed. An important indicator of readiness arrow is emotional stability – ability in extreme conditions to save the state of stress within acceptable limits, quickly return to the borders of the optimal level.

Emotional stability is largely based on the innate qualities. At the same time proper upbringing can affect the properties of nature. The main directions of this training are: hardening of the nervous system; prevention of psychological stress, beyond the limits that may injure the psyche;
increased motivation to succeed, preventing the negative effects of stress.

People differ in their ability to tolerate a greater or lesser intensity, without prejudice to its activities.
Will. In a complex, ever-changing world perceptions, motivations, experiences a person has to be adjusted in a certain way, to organise their activities, to control their behaviour.

All a person’s actions can be divided into involuntary performed without willpower, and arbitrary. The need for manifestation of the will arises when there was any goal that involves overcoming certain difficulties.

Many processes, movements, actions performed by man a studied, automate or encourage the various needs of the organism.

Under the definition of freedom means the ability of a person to consciously regulate their actions, actively guide them to achieve this goal, overcoming challenges on the way to her difficulties and obstacles.

The will of man is manifested in the aggregate volitional traits. These include:

Commitment – the ability to subordinate their activities, behaviour achieving this goal;

Persistence – the ability for a long time without compromising the energy to fight for the achievement of the goal. Increasing difficulties, as well as the approach of target does not reduce, but rather stimulates, enhances efforts.

Where necessary, the possible cessation efforts, temporising in order to once again under favourable conditions to mobilize their efforts by sending them to the solution of the problem;

Self-control – maintaining the clarity of consciousness in critical situations. Ability to manage their condition, to restrain themselves, to suppress impulsive manifestations, not to give a sense of confusion and fear;

Determination – the ability of a particular situation, risk assess the situation and make timely decisions. Perform it without undue hesitation and doubt. Without haste and the desire to put an end as soon as possible with the case often at the expense of quality;

Courage – a willingness to fight in a real or perceived danger.

Volitional features developed by the living conditions and to some extent inherent in all people. However, the specific activity, presenting their demands, affects the formation of strong-willed qualities.

Distinguish general will and the will of the special. The special will – is a further development of specialized general will.

The will of man cannot be considered as the sum of individual volitional traits. It is a complex fusion of volitional qualities.

Volitional qualities develop only in the process of overcoming difficulties. The difficulty faced by the people, is not in itself brings freedom. But, faced with the need to overcome it, it’s all on mobilizing their efforts, the person thus develops manifested quality. Willingness to overcome the difficulties strengthens the arrow to the new stresses, inspires him to new efforts equips confidence in their abilities and opportunities. The higher the difficulty that man has managed to overcome the higher its educational value. The difficulty was too big and because there are not coping not only strengthens, but weakens the will of man.

Character to overcome difficulties exerts its developmental impact on those physical or mental preparation side, which bear the load stress.

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Firearm Training – Special Units No. IX

Personality

Personality – a specific person with his characteristic individually unique physical and mental characteristics. The combination of the most important properties of stable personality, reflecting the innate and acquired qualities that define a person’s character. Character is formed throughout life and a decisive influence on human behaviour in specific circumstances.

The basis of the formation of character is temperament – congenital hard-coded functional system.

Temperament is manifested in power, balance and mobility of nervous processes – excitation, inhibition and their ratio.
Force is expressed in the nervous system constitution in respect to stresses coming from both the excitation and inhibition. It is this force that affects a person’s ability to withstand heavy loads without sacrificing its activities, the ability to display high performance, fast and – always ready to restrain their feelings, to maintain composure under stressful situations, stability to fatigue, self-confidence.

The serenity of the nervous system – in an atmosphere of calm behaviour thrilling, suspense, the lack of impulsive reactions, stability emotional situations.

Mobility – the speed of switching from one activity to another. Mood swings. Activity of motor responses and overall pace of life.

Positive aspects of the character are: strength of character, manifested in independent thought, critical evaluation of themselves and others, the pursuit of this goal, the possession of his senses, inadequate suppression of emotional displays, maintaining composure under stressful situations; courage, uninhibited in dealing with people, including strangers.

To the negative character traits are: the volatility in the interests, attitudes, decisions; evasion of the decision; inability to tolerate frustration (external obstacles); impulsive actions;
tendency to neuroticism; pronounced orientation to the opinions of others; sensitive to the opinion of others; the need for support and encouragement.

Properties of character – one of the most important personal characteristics. They could be assessed only through actions and reactions observed in certain situations, in conditions of high responsibility and interest.

In the study of the features of a particular activity is not difficult to determine what personal qualities are important for her to have a positive or negative impact. Comparing the personal characteristics of the person with the requirements of a particular activity, we can predict its potential in it.

The will to succeed. During the life of a person is formed attitude towards society, to itself, to its activities. One of the aspects of this relationship is the desire to achieve success in any activity, whether it is work, service or sports.

It is assumed that this feature is a means of self-affirmation. Fixed, striving for success becomes the property of the individual, inducing activity in addressing emerging challenges.

The will to succeed will not illusory, not dreamy, when a person sees quite clearly the way to achieve it, and appreciating the difficulties on the way to the goal, feels ready to overcome them. People who set high goals, often succeed.
Statement of limited purposes, though more real ones, but do not require to achieve their extraordinary efforts, has a less strong motivating influence.

Anxiety. It is human nature to feel fear or anxiety in different situations. Tendency to the emergence of this condition can manifest itself in many situations in life, as a personality trait of the person. State anxiety is characterized by feelings of tension, anxiety, concern.

As a property of the individual anxiety is the basis of an alarm occurring in each case under the circumstances, perceived as a threat to the individual.

Anxiety level has a positive or negative impact on the success of the activities associated with the relationship of man to success and failure, as well as its overall need for achievement.

Optimal level of anxiety helps to mobilize the body to achieve this goal.

Aggressiveness – a personal trait manifested only in an emergency activity. Propensity to aggression and related experiences significantly influence behaviour.

According to its influence aggressiveness is the quality of the opposite of anxiety.

Activation – the ability to mobilise their spiritual and physical strength at critical moments. Activation occurs either under the influence of the situation, either as a result of their own assessment of future activities and related stresses.

Questions psycho-regulation

The primary means of education is the practice of psychological qualities to overcome the difficulties specific to the activities performed. Various methods of regulation of mental state are complementary, although quite effective techniques. Possession psycho-regulation has the same paramount, as well as all other aspects of training.

The winner is usually the one who was able to better mobilise themselves to perform all actions in terms of optimal mental state can more fully realise the skills formed in the training work.

Possession psycho-regulation becomes an independent and important part of training.

The main available to us means regulation of mental states are :

Psychotherapy
Suggestion in the waking state
The suggestion being able to sleep
Self-hypnosis
Autogenous training

The basis of these instructional techniques is the impact of words and visual images, the symbol of which it is, on the course of mental and physiological processes.

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Firearm Training – Special Units No. X

Psycho-regulation methods can solve a wide range of practical tasks of preparation, including :

Raising awareness and clarity of concepts mastered actions
Training stability of attention, focusing on the processes of activity
The creation of attitudes on the level of requirements to quality of the activities performed, the level of effort that must be taken on control objects, usually falls outside the scope of attentio;
The suppression of negative emotional experiences
Reduction or suppression of anxiety
Elimination of intrusive thoughts, memories
Removal of trauma arising from past experience
Elimination of psychological barriers

Strengthening the motivation to achieve
The creation of a neutral attitude to events and events that may have an irritating influence.

Practically almost every one of these problems can be solved by one of these methods. However, some problems can be solved more effectively one and the other – other forms of influence. Some problems can be effectively solved only by the methods of suggestion.

Rational psychotherapy. The impact on the psyche of the methods of persuasion and explanation; rationale of evidence; show that the resulting psychological difficulties are based on misconceptions, mis-perceptions and estimates. To do this, you need to change their attitude to the irritant, and everything will come to normal.

Construction of the conversation should be based on knowledge of the causes of undesired state, and teaching tricks to eliminate their influence.

In an interview you must explain how to learn to suppress interfering with excitement, to prevent its occurrence, to adjust itself to the bold, strong and at the same time, care and attention work.

With the increase in confidence held talks should give the student speak to the fullest. Then you can show him the wrong thoughts and delusions, tactfully criticise them. At the same time emphasise its positive qualities and strengths. The arguments must be clear, the language simple and easy to understand. Need to avoid complicated scientific terms.

Suggestion. One form of mental impact one person to another, characterized by uncritical assimilation latest suggestible ideas, thoughts, feelings, desires and actions, Suggestion is mainly used in medicine and gives good results in the treatment of functional disorders of the nervous system. Its methods can be successfully applied in cases of overexertion of the nervous system, the establishment and strengthening of various kinds of attitudes.

Suggestion can be performed in awake and during sleep, dream-like state more precisely – hypnotic sleep.

Suggestion in the waking state. The methodology of the: room in the back of the building, relatively isolated from outside noise. On the floor – track, choke steps physician (psychologist). Lighting subdued, shaded. Involved are located in comfortable chairs or lie down on the couch. Before the start of the session is given five – ten minutes to adapt to the environment. Should get comfortable. Relax muscles, close your eyes. If possible, discard extraneous thoughts, focus on listening medical doctor formulas. Attention is drawn to the fact that as a session dealing with light begins to cover a nice nap. This should not interfere with, resist. Gently but imperative voice of the doctor : ‘Relax the muscles of your body. Breathe calmly, deeply. In this state of rest and relaxation, you will be well taken my words, my suggestion. With each session you will be pleased to be here to feel a state of relaxation, complete rest. Better and better you will perceive in their minds all my formulas and suggestions.’

Then the doctor begins to recite a specially created formula suggestion. His/her speech can be quietly but definitely emotional, expressive, have imperious tone.

Greater or lesser propensity of individuals to obey and not to change their behaviour on the basis of logical arguments, and one only requirements from the inspiring person determines their suggestibility, which is a normal feature of personality.

The degree of suggestibility and success suggestion everyone are never permanent. They depend on a number of factors, which include :

state of excitement; type of nervous system; state of fatigue; prolonged exposure to negative emotional asthenic conditions;
semantic content suggestible representations; authority inspiring person, expressiveness of his speech, built in the affirmative and imperative forms. Perception inspiring effects of sleep inhibition contributes to the state.

From the psychological side of suggestion is characterised by: narrowing of consciousness hypnotized, concentrating only on his mesmerizing and his words; more or less complete loss of personal initiative, increased dependence thoughts, reactions and actions of hypnotizing.

Suggestive effect may take the form of direct or indirect suggestion. Direct – a direct effect of the speech, which has some meaning and significance of the statement. Implementation of the inspired at the same time immediately. By their nature, direct verbal suggestion can be simple and short : Sleep, Rest, Wake up, a more or less complex and logically justified. For example, if you want to inspire a change in attitude to certain conditions, the direction of future actions.

With the implementation of the inspired indirect suggestion is associated with a particular subject or conditions by means of which they should be implemented.

Indirect suggestion can be successfully applied in the waking state; it is more powerful inspiring impact than direct.

Suggestion in a state of hypnotic sleep. Conduct of suggestion in a state of hypnotic sleep permitted only doctor. In this state, there is a heightened suggestibility, perceived suggestion fixed deeper and persist for a long time.

There are people who are afraid of hypnosis or prejudiced against him. For them, this technique is not suitable. Other highly suggestible in the waking state, but bad fall into hypnotic sleep.

A feature of the hypnotic sleep is functional dissection of cortical systems with partial separation on waking and sleepy area. This allows you to keep in constant contact between doctor and asleep (the phenomenon of rapport) and implement verbal suggestion.

Many issues, particularly those related to stress problems can be successfully resolved its methods. In particular, cases of trauma, psychological barriers, improving emotional stability, the creation and strengthening of various plants.

Self-hypnosis – inspiring effect on the human psyche, not coming from the outside, but from himself. Good results are obtained by the use of verbal and figurative formulas of self-hypnosis.

Formulas are developed for each student, and sometimes to each situation individually. In compiling them come from the specific task: you need to remove, edit, enhance. Formula pronounced repeatedly, on its own behalf, in the affirmative, in the present tense. Pronounce them recommended in the evening before going to sleep, lying in bed with his eyes closed. Better if accompanied by a repetition of their mental representation suggestible actions and states. In the morning, wake up, it should reiterate them.

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Fire Training – Special Units No. XI

Autogenous  training. Between the muscular system and the emotional state of a direct relationship exists. Negative emotions cause significant muscle tension. With anger, fear, there is considerable excitement constrained breathing, muffled voice. With positive emotions observed muscle relaxation, brings a state of rest of the body. In the state of muscle relaxation increases a person’s ability to manage through self-hypnosis those processes in the body, which in other circumstances cannot be strong-willed regulation.

Modern psychiatry developed methods of purposeful self-hypnosis, allowing people to bring your body into a state of total relaxation (relaxation), during which it affects their vegetative-vascular system and mental condition.

Autogenous  training requires regular exercise. Training course takes several months. Education provides preliminary volitional muscle relaxation followed by auto-suggestion specially developed verbal formulas.

The success of ownership psycho-regulation largely depends on the attitude of the student to this training, his beliefs in high performance techniques and the need for mastering.

All the above methods are reduced to the ability to create and maintain optimal mental state in a variety of changing conditions.

It is important to be able to navigate the opportunities and the appropriateness of existing methodologies psycho-regulation in each case preparation. Sometimes it is difficult to provide the student with suggestion, his/her mind cannot be influenced. In such cases, two or three sessions conducted in the waking state, the mind is better to help apprehend the formula of auto-suggestion.

Criteria and standards for individual assessment of fire trained staff of special units

The basis of determining the individual assessment of fire trained staff of special units in different situations combat activities should be based on grounds and procedures for application and use of weapons provided by law. The content of individual evaluation criteria for fire preparedness staff of special units should include exercises or introductory simulating real activity.

The effectiveness of the actions of the special units is determined, first of all, the level of his training, his psychological state in an emergency. With this in mind, the leading objectives are to develop standards for assessing the fire trained staff of special units, achieving a high level of training of employees in the class action.

In assessing the fire trained staff of special units, the fundamental criteria are:

The ability to quickly navigate the complex and rapidly changing environment;
The degree of development of abilities, health status, physical, business, moral, psychological and psycho-physiological qualities;
Knowledge of the material weapons of special units;
The ability to master employee weapon in service in special units and troubleshooting;
Knowledge of principles and rules of firing weapons capabilities and the order of its use;
Knowledge of fire tactics of special units;
Ability in limited time with the various provisions distances hit the target with the first shot (queue);
The ability to sniping at maximum range;
Knowledge of fire sniper tactics during live-fire;
Ability calculations aimed fire and fire on the area;
The ability gunner to fire sighting of the regular weapons;
The ability of fire from small arms to the right, the left, with two hands.

Based on the above criteria for individual evaluation of fire trained staff of special units, it is advisable to use the following guidelines. In connection with a rate of fire and dynamic contact the ready to fire from various provisions
(lying, kneeling, standing, from behind cover) requires a strict time frame than that provided by the regulations. Using the experience of training soldiers and riot police SWAT useful to define the following time indicators:

Machine , excellent , good , satisfactory
On standing for 5 seconds 6 seconds to 8 seconds
C knee 6 seconds 7 seconds 9 seconds
Lying 7 seconds 8 seconds 10 seconds
With SVD excellent, good, satisfactory
Standing 14 seconds 15 seconds 18 seconds
With the knee 15 seconds 16 seconds 19 seconds
Lying 16 seconds 17 seconds 20 seconds
Gun excellent, good, satisfactory
Standing 5 seconds 6 seconds to 8 seconds
With the knee 6 seconds 7 seconds 9 seconds
Lying 7 seconds 8 seconds 10 seconds

In carrying out special operations to the employee must satisfy more stringent requirements on the knowledge of the material weapons.
These requirements stem from the fact that, in the event of delays in shooting, troubleshooting time is limited.

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Confrontation with a Sniper – Memorandum for Anti-Sniper Training Course

Unit

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This memo was distributed to members of special Units. It occurs most often in the sniper environment, but the information contained in it, will be useful as infantrymen, and all who are in the combat zone.

And so :

1. Enemy snipers usually do not act alone, but as part of a sniper team.

2. The sniper armed with a sniper rifle foreign production, small-calibre sporting rifles, carbines, rifles with night sight, equipped with night vision binoculars, along with arrows group armed with machine guns with night sights, is able to detect and hit you in the afternoon at a distance of 500 metres and overnight – up to 300 metres. Moving wheeled and tracked vehicles, he/she discovers at night at a distance of more than 1000 metres.

3. Enemy snipers primarily affects the most important and vulnerable targets. Remember that he/she can hunt and you.

4. Clear guidelines and clearly distinguishable boundaries facilitate enemy snipers conduct aimed fire. Masks the place of its location, equipment 2 – 3 spare positions as often as possible to change them.

5. Enemy snipers are equipped with pre-primary and alternate firing positions that are selected in inconspicuous places that provide them a good review. In a city with a powerful group of cover (15-20 pers.), A sniper holding a dominant high-rise buildings. In small groups (3-4 people). He equips firing position on the lower and middle floors, deep to facilitate his/her transition to the fallback position. Inspect the surrounding area there is always determined on its position inaccessible for possible sniper fire place and entertain him/her.

6. Enemy snipers hit the target in the most vulnerable, are not covered by body armour parts of the body and head. Never neglect the means of body armour. When moving or leaving, not to expose the enemy vulnerabilities.

7. Enemy snipers during both day and night work actively with sound-masking single rifle shots intense gunfire. Unsighted shooting enemy may indicate the beginning of the snipers.

Sniping enemy groups, including several machine gunners and rocket launcher, act boldly: arrows, usually at night, provoke retaliatory fire from our positions, enemy snipers on the muzzle flashes quickly identifies targets and hit them; the nomination of armoured vehicles on the position of the enemy sniper group thrower, included in its composition, in an ambush affects our armoured targets. Be steadfast, does not reveal itself, characterised by imitation of enemy action themselves, lead fire on harassing fire lead only from the closed position.

9. The favourite tactic of enemy snipers, especially at night, are the actions of the ambush secrets on pre-prepared areas of land.

When traveling do not be a good target….

10. Enemy snipers that monitor can be found in the afternoon – to sun glare, night – using night vision devices. Organise and lead constantly monitored do not include night vision, without making sure that the enemy does not inspect the area using the same devices.

11. Continuous alerting enemy snipers at the firing position may be different. Making one or two shots, he changes the firing position. Be very careful when observing. Change in position sniper notice is very difficult, but indirect evidence.

12. Enemy snipers can operate in complete isolation and masked not only by federal troops, but also on their own. Way to monitor, particular attention is drawn to the concealed approaches and place convenient for the location of firepower and observation points, which can cover the sniper snipers Detection pairs enemy contribute even small tell-tale signs; glitter, noise, steam, swaying branches, new items, changes in their position and shape and aphids.

13. The enemy is cunning and crafty. Sniper often waiting in a certain place, you must appear, for example, as near killed or wounded soldier. Assisting a wounded comrade, be careful and cautious, use smoke for discreet approach, waiting for you to pre-empt the sniper.

14. When looking for a sniper remember that they may be old and a teenager, and refugee women. Typical bruises on his shoulder give them away.

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(C-IV) Unit. London

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Secret Intelligence Service

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Secret Intelligence Service

Adversitate. Custodi. Per Verum

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